NEW DELHI, July 13 (Reuters) – Flooding in parts of New Delhi forced the city government to close all education institutions in India’s capital on Thursday and advise people to work from home, while warning that there would be water rationing after the Yamuna river broke its banks.

Since the rainy monsoon season began on June 1, Delhi has recorded 113% above-average rainfall, the India Meteorological Department said, and the rains in the hilly states to the north have fed the river’s floodwaters.

“I appeal to all the people of Delhi to cooperate with each other in every possible way in this emergency,” Delhi’s Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal said on Thursday, warning that water supplies would be badly affected.

“Due to closure of water treatment plants, the supply of water will be affected by up to 25%. That’s why water rationing will be done,” Kejriwal told reporters.

The city of 20 million people has ordered the closure of all schools, colleges and universities until Sunday and stopped non-essential government staff from coming to office, Kejriwal said, adding that private firms were also being advised “to implement work from home.”

Kejriwal said the Yamuna’s level would peak later on Thursday, having already reached it highest levels in 45 years as a result of the unusually heavy downpours north of the capital.

The states of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Uttarakhand have recorded 105%, 91% and 22% more rain than average, respectively, since the monsoon season began.

With pets on their shoulders and pots and pans in their hands, hundreds of people living on the banks of the river waded through flooded pathways on Wednesday to reach some of the 2,500 relief camps set up to provide temporary shelter.

Flooding at a trauma centre in the posh Civil Lines neighbourhood – where Kejriwal and many top officials live – forced the transfer of dozens of patients to another hospital, ANI news agency reported.

At least 88 people have died in Himachal Pradesh during the incessant rains since June 24, ANI reported. Flash floods in the state over the weekend brought down a bridge and washed away several clusters of hutments.

Roads have been washed away during heavy rains in the mountainous Uttarakhand state, its chief minister told reporters on Wednesday.

Drainage Projects /Works

Drainage projects or works refer to infrastructure initiatives aimed at managing and controlling the flow of water, typically excess water, to prevent flooding, protect property, and ensure efficient water drainage. These projects involve the construction or improvement of drainage systems, including channels, pipes, ditches, and basins, to effectively collect and direct water away from urban areas, agricultural fields, or other vulnerable locations.

Some common types of drainage projects/works include:

Stormwater Drainage Systems: These projects focus on designing and constructing systems to manage rainwater runoff, particularly during heavy rainfall events. They involve the installation of storm drains, catch basins, and underground pipes to collect and channel excess rainwater away from developed areas.

Surface Water Management: These projects aim to control surface water flow by creating slopes, embankments, or earthworks to direct water away from critical areas. They may also involve the construction of retention ponds, wetlands, or reservoirs to temporarily store water and regulate its release.

Agricultural Drainage: Agricultural drainage projects involve the installation of drainage systems in agricultural fields to manage soil moisture levels and control waterlogging. These projects typically include the installation of field drains, tile drains, or subsurface drainage systems to improve soil conditions for crop growth.

Urban Drainage Systems: Urban drainage projects focus on the efficient removal of wastewater and stormwater from urban areas. They involve the construction and maintenance of sewer networks, pumping stations, and wastewater treatment plants to ensure proper sanitation and prevent flooding in densely populated areas.

Flood Protection and Control: These projects aim to mitigate the risk of flooding by constructing flood control channels, levees, and flood embankments. They are designed to divert or contain floodwaters and protect vulnerable areas from inundation.

Drainage projects are essential for ensuring public safety, protecting infrastructure, and maintaining the proper functioning of urban and agricultural areas. They require careful planning, engineering expertise, and consideration of environmental impacts to create sustainable and effective drainage solutions.

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Flood Barrier

A flood barrier, also known as a flood defense or flood protection system, is a structure or system designed to prevent or mitigate the impact of flooding by creating a barrier to block or redirect floodwaters. Flood barriers are typically installed in areas prone to flooding, such as coastal regions, riverbanks, or low-lying areas.

There are several types of flood barriers, each with its own design and function. Some common types include:

Flood Walls: These are sturdy walls made of concrete, steel, or other materials that are built along the edges of water bodies or in flood-prone areas to contain or divert floodwaters.

Flood Gates: Flood gates are movable barriers that can be closed during flood events to block the entry of water. They are often installed at the openings of flood-prone areas, such as river channels or culverts.

Flood Barriers: These are temporary or deployable barriers that can be quickly installed when flooding is anticipated. They can be made of materials such as sandbags, metal panels, or inflatable tubes and are typically used in emergency situations.

Levees: Levees are embankments or raised structures built along riverbanks or coastlines to prevent flooding by confining water within a designated area. They are usually made of compacted soil, reinforced with materials like rocks or concrete.

Floodgates and Sluice Gates: These are movable barriers that can be opened or closed to control the flow of water in rivers, canals, or drainage channels. They are often used in conjunction with other flood protection measures.

The effectiveness of flood barriers depends on their design, construction quality, and maintenance. It is important to consider factors such as the height and strength of the barrier, the anticipated floodwater levels, and the surrounding environment when designing and installing flood protection systems.

Flood barriers play a crucial role in reducing the impact of flooding, protecting lives, property, and infrastructure, and enabling communities to recover more quickly from flood events. They are an integral part of comprehensive flood risk management strategies.

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